The file, kascade.pilot, contains input information for all versions of kascade. Any line with no asterisk is a comment line. The comments in the file make it self-explanatory (hopefully). You may use a pilot file with a different name placing the filename on the kascade command line: such as,
"./Simulation/Shower/kascade newfilename". The default (no filename on the command line) is kascade.pilot.

Note that all versions of kascade, when compiled with the make_them_all script link the compiled version to GrISU/Simulation/Shower/kascade

                --- KASCADE SHOWER GENERATOR PILOT ---
                   GrISU version 4.0.1
            for kascade, kascade7 or kascade3


January 2007

This version used Glenn Sembroski and Mary Kurtzman's latest code (kascade) which requires a Fortran90 compiler. The makefile in Shower/Kascade will use find the Intel or the Absoft compiler if either is on the system. Check the makefile for the required environmental variables for identifying these compilers.

Kascade3 is the old version of kascade used with the original crab spectra studies. Kascade7 is a newer version of kascade3 with a number of Glenn and Mary's updates; it has not been throughly compared with either kascade3 or kascade. Both compile with the g77 compiler.

Data lines begin with an asterisk, comment lines do not.
Data lines can be in any order

run title (default, no title: leave as comment line)
* TITLE test file

Total number of showers to create

Output filename for segments. default stdout (by removing *)
 FILEO Data/photon.seg

Output filename for log file.  If asterisk removed,no log file
* FILEL kascade.log

Choose one of the following two methods for initializing the random number generator:
  (a) KASRN: (only for kascade) designate a file
containing the full integer seed vector. At the end of the  shower production, kascade will create a new file containing the current seed vector for subsequent use
  (b) RSEED: (for all versions of kascade) specify a negative integer of not more than 32 bits to have kascade initialize the random number generator. Kascade does not
create a file containing the seed vector at the end of the run for this option.

Seed filename for kascade, default 'kascade.ran'. Specifying both KASRN and RSEED will give an error message, both to stderr and to the kascade log file and kascade will stop.

random-number seed file only applicable for kascade
 KASRN ./Simulation/Shower/Kascade/kascade.ran

random-number seed applicable for all versions of kascade
Seed for random-number generator
* RSEED -19240

Minimum and maximum energy in TeV of primary particle
* ENERG 20.0 20.0

Now can throw heavies with kascade, see list at end of this file
Initial particle type: 1=gamma, 13=proton (plus others listed below)

integral spectral index (for any particle type). 
If a comment line, default is -1.5
* INDXG -1.5

Direction Cosines, dl, dm, dn of primary in coordinate system where x-axis is East, y-axis is South, and z-axis is pointing down. This makes the x-axis perpendicular to the earth's B field. Note that vertically down is the positive z direction so that the z-direction cosine is always positive.

if dl and dm are both 0.0
   kascade, kascade3, kascade7:  dl and dm are randomly determined.

If either dl or dm is non-zero:
    kascade: dl and dm will specify the azimuthal direction where dl and dm do not have to be the components of a unit vector, kascade does the normalization. dn specifies the shower z-direction cosine.
In addition, the z direction cosine can vary between two bounds set by dn and a fourth parameter, dnn. The z direction cosine is randomly determined between these two bounds. If the z direction cosine is fixed, just leave off dnn.

  kascade3 and kascade7: dl,dm,and dn must be the components of a unit vector within a tolerance of approximately 1.0e-5. Leave off dnn.

* DIRCS 0.387298334 0.316227766 0.8660254

  DIRCS 1.0 0.0 0.9 1.0
kascade only, z direction cosine varies between 0.9 and 1.0 with random


or, set the direction using azimuth and zenith angle in the DAZEL record,
all in degrees. The third field sets the range of randomly selected zenith
angles (the range is the cosines of the two zenith angles) and may be
omitted. If omitted, the zenith angle is fixed; or if the third parameter
is 0.0, the zenith angle is fixed.

  DAZZN <azimuth(degrees)> <zen.ang1(deg.)> <zen.ang2>
 DAZZN 0.0 30.0 0.0

  DIRCS 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.0
z direction cosine fixed at 0.9 with fixed azimuth
 DIRCS 0.2 0.0 0.9

Threshold energy in MeV
* THRES 25.0

depth of first interaction, gm/cm2 (always > 1.1 gm/cm2 for US68 atmosphere). You may select either the US68 or the US76 atmosphere for kascade and cherenkf7. See choice of Makefiles in Simulation/Atmos. The default atmosphere is the US76 atmosphere for kascade and cherenkf7.  However, both kascade3 and kascade7 use the US68 atmosphere. So, if you are using kascade3 or kascade7, you should
"cp Makefile_US68 Makefile" in
Simulation/Atmos so that your version of kascade and cherenkf7 will use the same US68 atmosphere. But be careful to set the first interaction depth
to a value greater than 1.1.

* DEPTH 1.1

Depth of observatory in gms/cm2 (about 763 for Hopkins)
  DPOBS 763.0
 DPOBS 815.5
for basecamp
* DPOBS 890.0

Slice thickness in radiation lengths
* THICK 0.05

Process particles, used for debugging normally set to <f>, ordered by particle types listed below.
These can now be either t or f with no effect on the segment output file.
Applies to all versions of kascade
* PROCS f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f

Magnet on, Ionization on, multiple scattering on <t or f>, for use with kascade3 and kascade7.
* FLAGS t t t

magnet on: for kascade only. if W, use whipple location,
otherwise magnetic field will be turned off

log filename (see documentation, normally remove asterisk unless debugging)
 KLOGO    klog

particle on ground option for kascade only, t/f, default 'f'
This will be a binary, unnamed file, should normally leave out

Particle types (particle type <=18), for all versions of kascade
 1: gamma photon     2: positron   3: electron  4: +muon   5: -muon   6: neutral pion     7: +pion      8: -pion     9: +kaon  10: -kaon    11: l.nt.kaon       12: s.nt.kaon 13: proton   14: neutro 15: e neutrino     16: e antineutrino  17: muon neut.18: muon antineutrion

Particle types: heavies, particle type > 20 (and <=76) for kascade only

  21:  H-1 |  31: B-11 |  41: Ne-21 |  51: K-31 |  61: K-41  |  71: V-51
  22:  H-2 |  32: C-12 |  42: Ne-22 |  52: S-32 |  62: K-42  |  72: Cr-52
  23:  H-3 |  33: C-13 |  43: Na-23 |  53: S-33 |  63: Ca-43 |  73: Cr-53
  24: He-4 |  34: N-14 |  44: Mg-24 |  54: S-34 |  64: Ca-44 |  74: Mn-54
  25: He-5 |  35: N-15 |  45: Mg-25 |  55: Cl-35|  65: Sc-45 |  75: Mn-55
  26: Li-6 |  36: O-16 |  46: Mg-26 |  56: Cl-36|  66: Sc-46 |  76: Fe-56
  27: Li-7 |  37: O-17 |  47: Al-27 |  57: Cl-37|  67: Ti-47 |
  28: Be-8 |  38: O-18 |  48: Si-28 |  58: Ar-38|  68: Ti-48 |
  29: Be-9 |  39: F-19 |  49: Si-29 |  59: K-39 |  69: Ti-49 |
  30: B-10 |  40: Ne-20|  50: Si-30 |  60: Ar-40|  70: V-50  |