home         cherenkov         grisudet        analysis        utilities



A Fortran Code to Produce Atmospheric-Shower Segments from Cosmic-Ray Primaries

Referencies:kascade site at Depauw University
"Computer Simulation Methods for Investigating the Detection Characteristics of TeV Air Chenerkov Telescopes", Kertzman and Sembroski, NIM, A 343, 629-643, 1994.

Developed in 1989 by Glenn Sembroski and Mary Kertzman. This atmospheric-shower production code is now in its seventh version at Iowa State University. The code uses Monte-Carlo simulation techniques to produce atmospheric segments from incident primary cosmic rays. It simulates all processes taking place in an atmospheric cascade between the first interaction of the primary particle with the air and the production of Cherenkov light by secondary particles traveling through the air faster than the speed of light in the same medium.

Currently, I am aware of three versions of the kascade code: kascade3, kascade7, and kascade.

Kascade3 was used by the Whipple and Veritas collaborations to produce TeV energy spectra of gamma rays from the Crab nebula and from the AGN's, Markarian 421 and 501. While there are known problems in the code, using kascade3 provides a link for comparison of current results with these earlier results. We include the kascade3 code modified for use in this package. You will find it in the GrISU/Simulation/Shower/Kascade3 folder.

Kascade7 contains improvements through approximately the year 1998 made by Glenn Sembroski (Purdue Univ.) and Mary Kertzman(Depaw University). It is similar to the most current version of kascade (see next paragraph), but doesn't contain the latest improvements. This code is in the GrISU/Simulation/Shower/Kascade7 folder.

Kascade is Glenn Sembroski and Mary Kertzman's latest version. It compiles under Fortran 90 rather than Fortran 77 and requires linkages to C++ code.  Except for the kascade.cpp driver code and the atmospheric functions, all fortran and c++ codes are exact copies of Glenn and Mary's latest version. Thus, from this point forward, we our kascade will exactly match Glenn and Mary's latest version. This code is in the GrISU/Simulation/Shower/Kascade folder.  The atmospheric functions are in the Simulations/Atmos directory.

Compilation of kascade requires either the Absoft Fortran 90 compiler or the free Intel Fortran compiler (follow this link for detailed instructions for obtaining and installing this compiler). The Makefile for kascade included in GrISU/Simulation/Shower/Kascade defaults to the Intel compiler; if you use the Absoft version 10 compiler, set an environmental variable, ABSOFTV10_FORTRAN in your login file and the kascade Makefile will use the Absoft compiler.

The change logs at the beginning of kascade3, kascade7, and kskascademain.for describe in some detail the histories of these codes.


all Kascade versions require the kascade.pilot file:

The following sections describe the Kascade package
Kascade Input Parameters

Kascade Segment Output

Kascade Log File

Kascade Code Description

Kascade Include File

Testing and Verification