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Carleton DeTar

Unix Command Reference

Default Terminal Keys

Rubout previous character <BackSpace>
Erase this line C-u
Stop console output C-s
Resume console output C-q

Listing File Names: ls

List file names (alphabetical order) ls
Show hidden files ls -a
Show permissions ls -l
List in chronological order ls -t

Displaying file contents

Print on console cat filename
Print on printer lpr filename
Print first $n$ lines head [-$n$] filename
Print last $n$ lines tail [-$n$] filename
Print one screenful at a time more filename
Next page within more <Space>
Previous page within more b
Searching within more /pattern
Print line(s) containing string grep string filename


Read your new mail mail
Read your old mail mail -f
Send from console to another user mail username
Send file to another user mail [-s subject] username < filename

File Maintenance

Copy a file cp currentfilename copyfilename
Delete a file rm filename
Rename a file mv oldname newname
Show differences between files diff leftfile rightfile
In which directory is your file? find . -name filename -print


Show the current directory pwd
Switch to a directory cd directoryname
Back up one level in the tree cd ..
Create a directory mkdir directoryname
Remove a directory rmdir directoryname
Moving a file to a directory mv filename directoryname (both must exist)
Moving a directory to new location mv directorynamenewparentdirectory
(both must exist)

Date and Calendar

Date and time of day date
Calendar cal [[mm] yyyy]


Seeing who is logged in who or finger
Getting a username finger lastname
Changing identities su username
Seeing who you are whoami
who am i

Changing machines

Logging on to another machine rsh hostname
Logging out from any machine logout
Which machine is this? hostname

Information about a command

Man pages man command
Starting Infoexplorer info

Filename substitution

Wild cards ? *
Your home directory  
Home directory of another user  username

I/O redirection and pipes

Standard output >
Standard input <
Append to standard output »
Pipes/pipelines |


Sort alphabetically on first word sort
Sort in numeric order sort -n
Sort in numeric order with scientific notation allowed sort -g
Sort on the $n$ th field sort -k$n$

tcsh command history

List previous commands history
Repeat previous command !!
Move up in history list Ctrl-p (previous)
Move down in history Ctrl-n (next)
Cursor left to edit command Ctrl-b (backwards)
Cursor right to edit command Ctrl-f (forwards)
Delete character in command Ctrl-d
Repeat $n$th command in history !$n$
Repeat command beginning with str !str

tcsh, csh job control

Run command in the background command &
Stop foreground job C-z
Run stopped job in foreground fg
Run stopped job in background bg
List background jobs jobs
Bring job foreward %[$n$]
Run command at lower priority nice command

tcsh miscellaneous

Filename, command name completion <Tab>
List possible completions Ctrl-d
Spelling correction ESC s
Define alias alias name 'definition'

csh environment

List current settings env
Change setting setenv VARIABLE value

Process control

List your processes ps
Tell a process to die kill PID
Kill without mercy kill -9 PID
Timing time command


For more complete information, refer to man pages for these commands and the info online documentation system. A good Unix reference is Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike, The Unix Programming Environment (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984).

About this document ...

This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 2002 (1.63) Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds.

The translator was augmented by "uces.sty" and "uces.perl" (version 3.0b), which are available from the Hamlet Project at the University of Utah.

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