A great deal of legacy code used in computational science and
engineering is written in Fortran, especially in the form of
subroutine packages. With a few simple rules one can call Fortran
encoded subroutines. A detailed example is given in notes on
The main consideration is that Fortran matrices are stored by columns
with both subscripts starting at 1:
A(1,1) A(2,1) ... A(50,1) A(1,2) A(2,2) ... A(1,50) ... A(50,50)
As long as the precision is the same and we match up the beginning of
the array in C++ and Fortran we establish an equivalence between
A(2,1), etc. We just have to remember that the subscripts are
reversed and our subscript numbering is one less than Fortran's.
Another consideration is that Fortran 77 (a very common version for
legacy Fortran code) expects all subprogram parameters (arguments) to
be pointers. Of course, we must be sure to match the Fortran
precision for all numeric types. And finally, unlike C++, Fortran
allows the array dimensions in formal subprogram parameters to be
variable, so this dimension is often passed as a parameter as we now
mulmatvec subroutine were written in Fortran,
and the author adopted the usual convention that the first Fortran
matrix subscript is the row index and the second, the column. You might
find the following description of this subroutine
SUBROUTINE MULMATVEC(M, N, MAX, A, X, B) REAL*8 A(MAX,*), X(*), B(*) INTEGER M, N, MAX C C INPUT PARAMETERS C C M - NUMBER OF ROWS IN A AND NUMBER OF COMPONENTS IN B C N - NUMBER OF COLUMNS IN A AND NUMBER OF COMPONENTS IN X C MAX - LEADING DIMENSION OF A C A - REAL*8 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAY CONTAINING THE MATRIX C X - REAL*8 ARRAY CONTAINING THE VECTOR C C OUTPUT PARAMETERS C C B - REAL*8 ARRAY CONTAINING THE RESULT OF MATRIX A TIMES VECTOR X
Here is how we would modify our code to call this subroutine. The actual Fortran subroutine is in a separate file, of course. We don't give the Fortran code here.
extern "C"declaration tells the compiler not to modify the function name. The extra underscore character in the name may be needed, because Fortran compilers often add them. The Fortran type
REAL*8is equivalent to C++
MAXis not a variable, but just a macro, we have to store its value somewhere and pass a pointer to that location. That is the reason for introducing the variable
max. Another way to do it is to promote
MAXto a variable by declaring it to be a global constant. This is done by replacing the
#definedirective with the C++ declaration
const int MAX = 50;Declaring it to be constant assures that the compiler won't let us accidentally change it. Then we can pass
&MAXas a parameter, as long as we also change
const int *in the prototype for that parameter.
For another example and more details, please see the supplementary notes on Fortran binding.