Introduction to Particle physics

Evolving Provisional Agenda

Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4,

Week 5, Week 6, Week 7, Week 8,

Week 9, Week 10, Week 11, Week 12,

Week 13, Week 14, Week 15 Week 16

1) Monday January 8th

- Here are notes with more of a historical approach.
- Here is a collection of wikipedia links and original research articles which you should find interesting

Standard model overview continued

*) Monday January 15th:

3) Wednesday January 17th

- While Newton's law of dynamics is invariant under Galilean transformation, this is not the case of electrodynamics.
- Michelson and Morley's experiment establishes that the speed of light is independent from the state of motion of the observer.
- This implied the Lorentz transformations of Special Relativity.
- Have a look at Einstein's 1905 paper on the electrodynamic of moving bodies.
- Otherwise here is Einstein 1920 book re-edited: "Relativity: the special and general theory" which is really nice to read.
- Here is a 1975 derivation of Lorentz transformation by Levy-Leblond. It is interesting because it does not presuppose any particular role played by the speed of light or any other speed.
- There are some excellent lecture notes on special relativity written by David Hogg.
**Quiz 01:**Questions and answers

4) Monday January 22th

- We started with an exercise illustrating Lorentz transformations
- We introduced the concept of scalar and four-vectors
- Using this, we defined the four-velocity
**Quiz 02:**Questions and answers

- We defined the four-momentum and reviewed its properties
- Here is an exercise on the neutral pion decay from the physics common exam at the U.

6) Monday January 29th

- Compton scattering. See also Arthur Compton 1923 paper.
- We briefly talked about Quasars, Blazars, Edington luminosity and superluminal motion.
- Atomic mass unit
- Nuclear binding energy and valley of stability. There is an ongoing search of an the island of stability
**Quiz 03:**Questions and answers

- Liquid drop model and the nuclear shell model and its magic numbers
- Primordial nucleosynthesis and see also Cosmological helium simplified by J. Bernstein.
- This makes me think of J.Bernstein autobiography entitled The life it brings. It is a really nice read. It might be difficult to get now.
- Also you may like to read "The First Three Minutes: A Modern View Of The Origin Of The Universe" by Steven Weinberg.
- Stellar nucleosynthesis in sufficiently massive stars can ultimately lead to a type II super nova during which elements heavier than Iron can be produced in the so-called R-process.
- The neutrinos from one such supernova were detected during SN1987
- We talked about degeneracy pressure and neutron stars.
- I briefly mentioned neutron star mergers detected via the gravitational waves they produce as a likely origin of heavy metals.
**Quiz 04**was given in class but as we run out of time, it was decided it would be due in class on Monday February 5th. And here is the solution

8) Monday February 5th

- Matter-antimatter symmetry in question.
- Nuclear fission and chain reaction leading to the notion of critical mass
- Stars like the Sun burns Hydrogen into Helium via the p-p chain which allows to predict a Solar Neutrino flux
- Heavier stars burn Hydrogen into Helium via the CNO cycle.
- The Homestake experiment led to identifying the Solar Neutrino Problem.
- The problem was resolved by the establishment of neutrino oscillations from observations with the experiments Super Kamiokande and the Sudbury_Neutrino_Observatory.

- Bethe formula derived by Hans Bethe in 1930-1932
**Quiz 05**was given in class but as we run out of time again, it is now Wednesday February 7th.

- Nuclear emulsions
- Cloud chambers
- Bubble chambers
- Ionization chamber
- Geiger counter
- Proportional counter
- Time projection chamber
- Scintillator can be coupled to photomultiplier tube which are characterized by their quantum efficiency and gain
- Cherenkov radiation
- Transition radiation
**Quiz 06:**Questions and answers- Bremsstrahlung which led us to the notion of Radiation length
- See this paper on Moliere theory of multiple scattering by Hans Bethe in 1953
- classical radius of the electron
- Rayleigh scattering
- Thomson cross section and Klein Nishinal formula.
- Pair creation
**Quiz 07:**Questions and answers

10) Monday February 12th

- Planck-Einstein relation
- de Broglie wavelength
- Wave functions
- Observables
- Schrodinger's equation
- Born's rule and probability amplitudes
**Quiz 8**was turned into a take home due Wednesday February 21st. Here is the solution: Solved Quiz 08

12) Monday February 19th:

13) Wednesday February 21st

MIDTERM covering U01/U02/U03

14) Monday February 26th

- Probability current and continuity equation
- The wave function collapse or von Neumann postulate
- Expectation values
- Uncertainty relations
- angular momentum

16) Monday March 5th

17) Wednesday March 7th

18) Monday March 12th

- von Neumann postulate: state collapse John von Neumann was an interesting character.
- This postulate inspired many interpretations including the many-worlds interpretation by Hugh Everett
- Schroedinger equation
- Erwin Schroedinger was an interesting character too
- Application to the case of neutrinos oscillations

- Eightfold Way organization of hadrons due to Murray Gell-Mann
- In the notes I may not explain why we concentrate on unit determinent transformation matrix. This is due to the fac they preserve volume elements and terefor probability densities. You may have studied this in the non linear case in Calc II or Calc III: Jacobian determinants

*) Monday March 19th:

*) Wednesday March 21st:

20) Monday March 26th

- the exponential decay law encountered in radioativity.
- Definition of exponential function.
- solid angles
- differential cross section
- Rutherford cross section
**Quiz 11**was turned into a take home due Wednesday March 28. Here is the solution: Solved Quiz 11

- We used perturbation theory, specifically the method of variation of constants and obtained Fermi's golden rule
**Quiz 12:**Questions and answers

22) Monday April 2nd

MIDTERM covering U04 and possibly U02

23) Wednesday April 4th

24) Monday April 9th

26) Monday April 16th

- Lagrangian mechanics overview (Notes)
- Noether's theorem
**Quiz 13:**Questions and answers

28) Monday April 23rd

**Quiz 14:**Questions and answers

*) Tuesday April 24th: